Glossary

B

Blood-brain barrier

A mechanism found across species that protects the brain from exposure to toxins, both exogenous and endogenous.

F

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

Cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. FISH uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with which they show a high degree of sequence complementarity.

I

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Uses antibodies to detect the target protein on tissue sections.

P

P-glycoprotein

A transporter protein that serves as an efflux pump to extrude substrates back into circulation after they initially diffuse into the endothelial cells in the brain capillary.

R

Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Detects ROS1 by determining the presence of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts.

ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1)

The ROS1 gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase in the insulin receptor superfamily. The role of ROS1 in normal development is not fully understood; however, genetic rearrangements of ROS1 have been identified in various cancer types and widely studied in non-small cell lung cancer.

T

Translocation

Transposition of 2 segments between nonhomologous chromosomes as a result of abnormal breakage and refusion of reciprocal segments.