Lugano Treatment Response Criteria (2014)

Criteria for treatment response assessment

Table 6. Lugano Treatment Response Criteria (2014)15

Response and site

PET-CT–based response

CT-based response


Complete metabolic response

Complete radiologic response (all of the following)

Lymph nodes and extralymphatic sites Score 1, 2, or 3* with or without a residual mass on 5PS. It is recognized that in Waldeyer's ring or extranodal sites with high physiologic uptake or with activation within spleen or marrow (eg, with chemotherapy or myeloid colony-stimulating factors), uptake may be greater than normal mediastinum and/or liver. In this circumstance, complete metabolic response may be inferred if uptake at sites of initial involvement is no greater than surrounding normal tissue, even if the tissue has high physiologic uptake

Target nodes/nodal masses must regress to ≤1.5 cm in LDi

No extralymphatic sites of disease

Nonmeasured lesion Not applicable Absent
Organ enlargement Not applicable Regress to normal
New lesions None None
Bone marrow No evidence of FDG-avid disease in marrow Normal by morphology; if indeterminate, IHC negative


Partial metabolic response

Partial remission (all of the following)

Lymph nodes and extralymphatic sites Score 4 or 5 with reduced uptake compared with baseline and residual mass(es) of any size ≥50% decrease in SPD of up to 6 target measurable nodes and extranodal sites
  At interim, these findings suggest responding disease When a lesion is too small to measure on CT, assign 5 mm × 5 mm as the default value
  At end of treatment, these findings indicate residual disease

When no longer visible, 0 × 0 mm

For a node >5 mm × 5 mm, but smaller than normal, use actual measurement for calculation

Nonmeasured lesions Not applicable Absent/normal, regressed, but no increase
Organ enlargement Not applicable Spleen must have regressed by >50% in length beyond normal
New lesions None None
Bone marrow Residual uptake higher than uptake in normal marrow but reduced compared with baseline (diffuse uptake compatible with reactive changes from chemotherapy allowed). If there are persistent focal changes in the marrow in the context of a nodal response, consideration should be given to further evaluation with MRI or biopsy, or an interval scan Not applicable

No response or stable disease

No metabolic response

Stable disease

Target nodes/nodal masses, extranodal lesions Score 4 or 5 with no significant change in FDG uptake from baseline at interim or end of treatment <50% decrease from baseline in SPD of up to 6 dominant, measurable nodes and extranodal sites; no criteria for progressive disease are met
Nonmeasured lesions Not applicable No increase consistent with progression
Organ enlargement Not applicable No increase consistent with progression
New lesions None None
Bone marrow No change from baseline Not applicable

Progressive disease

Progressive metabolic disease

Progressive disease requires at least 1 of the following

Individual target nodes/nodal masses Score 4 or 5 with an increase in intensity of uptake from baseline, and/or PPD progression:
Extranodal lesions New FDG-avid foci consistent with lymphoma at interim or end-of-treatment assessment An individual node/lesion must be abnormal with: LDi >1.5 cm and increase by ≥50% from PPD nadir and an increase in LDi or SDi from nadir 0.5 cm for lesions ≤2 cm 1.0 cm for lesions >2 cm. In the setting of splenomegaly, the splenic length must increase by >50% of the extent of its prior increase beyond baseline (eg, a 15-cm spleen must increase to >16 cm). If no prior splenomegaly, must increase by at least 2 cm from baseline new or recurrent splenomegaly
Nonmeasured lesions None New or clear progression of pre-existing nonmeasured lesions
New lesions New FDG-avid foci consistent with lymphoma rather than another etiology (eg, infection, inflammation). If uncertain regarding etiology of new lesions, biopsy or interval scan may be considered

Regrowth of previously resolved lesions

A new node >1.5 cm in any axis; a new extranodal site >1.0 cm in any axis; if <1.0 cm in any axis, its presence must be unequivocal and must be attributable to lymphoma

Assessable disease of any size unequivocally attributable to lymphoma

Bone marrow New or recurrent FDG-avid foci New or recurrent involvement

*A score of 3 in many patients indicates a good prognosis with standard treatment, especially if at the time of an interim scan. However, in trials involving PET where de-escalation is investigated, it may be preferable to consider a score of 3 as inadequate response (to avoid undertreatment). Measured dominant lesions: Up to 6 of the largest dominant nodes, nodal masses, and extranodal lesions selected to be clearly measurable in 2 diameters. Nodes should preferably be from disparate regions of the body and should include, where applicable, mediastinal and retroperitoneal areas. Non-nodal lesions include those in solid organs (eg, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs), GI involvement, cutaneous lesions, or those noted on palpation. Nonmeasured lesions: Any disease not selected as measured, dominant disease, and truly assessable disease should be considered not measured. These sites include any nodes, nodal masses, and extranodal sites not selected as dominant or measurable or that do not meet the requirements for measurability but are still considered abnormal, as well as truly assessable disease, which is any site of suspected disease that would be difficult to follow quantitatively with measurement, including pleural effusions, ascites, bone lesions, leptomeningeal disease, abdominal masses, and other lesions that cannot be confirmed and followed by imaging. In Waldeyer’s ring or in extranodal sites (eg, GI tract, liver, bone marrow), FDG uptake may be greater than in the mediastinum with complete metabolic response, but should be no higher than surrounding normal physiologic uptake (eg, with marrow activation as a result of chemotherapy or myeloid growth factors).

PET 5PS: 1, no uptake above background; 2, uptake ≤ mediastinum; 3, uptake > mediastinum but ≤ liver; 4, uptake moderately > liver; 5, uptake markedly higher than liver and/or new lesions; X, new areas of uptake unlikely to be related to lymphoma.

5PS=5-point scale; CT=computed tomography; FDG=fluorodeoxyglucose; IHC=immunohistochemistry; LDi=longest transverse diameter of a lesion; MRI=magnetic resonance imaging; PET=positron emission tomography; PPD=cross product of the LDi and perpendicular diameter; SDi=shortest axis perpendicular to the LDi; SPD=sum of the product of the perpendicular diameters for multiple lesions.